Mozambique is one of the poorest countries in the world. It gained independence from Portugal after a long colonial history in 1975. The civil war from 1977 to 1992, natural disasters and the high HIV/AIDS rate from the 1990s until today prevented sustainable economic development.
Although the country has since become one of the fastest developing economies on the continent, poverty and inequality are still widespread: Measured by the Human Development Index (HDI) and per capita income, Mozambique ranks among the 10 poorest countries in the world. About half of the population lives below the poverty line of USD 1.90.
Mozambique has one of the highest birth rates in the world. At the same time, the average life expectancy is very low at around 58 years, which is partly due to the occurrence of waterborne diseases.
Mozambique's population growth and urbanisation rates are among the highest in the world, facing a similar situation as Zambia. Since 1990, the country's urban population has tripled to 8 million. In the next 20 years it is expected to reach 24 million.
Water and Sanitation Situation
Only about half of the population of Mozambique has access to clean water and a bare 20 percent have access to adequate sanitation facilities. It is estimated that this sanitary situation costs the government over 4 billion Meticais - around 70 million Swiss francs - each year due to premature deaths, medical costs and productivity losses.
Human Development Index (HDI)
Rank 181 (Total 188)
50% without access to clean water
80% without access to sanitary facilities
Areas with high density stress are created due to rapid migration to cities. In Mozambique, they are called Bairros. They are characterised by inadequate infrastructure, high levels of poverty, underdeveloped health and education systems and an informal economy. Infrastructure for drinking water, sewage, basic sanitation and drainage is also scarce.
CONSEQUENCES OF AN INADEQUATE SEWAGE SUPPLY
Due to inadequate sanitary facilities, pathogens enter the soil through faecal matter as well as into ground- and drinking water. Especially during the rainy season, infrastructural deficiencies lead to problems. Holes fill up and become unsafe water points, open latrines are under water. As a result, waterborne diseases such as cholera and typhoid fever spread.
The capital Maputo is the largest city in the country with almost 1.7 million inhabitants. 1.3 million people live in densely populated informal settlements - tendency rising. Less than half of the population has safe access to clean drinking water and only a small part of the city is serviced by a sewage system.
The biggest challenges for improving the WASH situation in the city are the lack of financial resources and limited capacities of local institutions.
Population of Maputo
1.3 million in Bairros
60% without access to drinking water
90% without access to sanitary facilities
Street scene in Bairro Aeroporto B, Maputo
Street scene in Bairro Aeroporto B, Maputo
The improvement of the WASH situation significantly betters the lives of thousands of people. Our goals are based on this vision:
Effectively counteracting the spread of waterborne diseases
Reducing inequalities in opportunities between women and men through infrastructure and raising awareness
Supporting and connecting local actors and structures in a goal-oriented way in order to prevent parallel structures
REGULAR TRAINING IN HYGIENE
Neighbourhood associations carry out systematic door-to-door hygiene training before, during and after infrastructural interventions. In addition to raising awareness, data on the use of toilets and personal hygiene is collected.
SAFE BASIC SANITATION
Local partners are enabled to set up sanitary facilities which are connected to a wastewater management system. Wastewater management includes the removal and transport of faecal matter to the treatment plant.
Local residents are involved in the process from the outset via local partner organisations. This creates incentives for a sustainable use of the infrastructure and transfers responsibility to the local population and institutions.
WfW establishes long-term relationships with local partner organisations and provides them with organisational support. They are the main actors in implementation, building on the joint conceptual design of projects.